Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains are known to cause edema disease (ED) and postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in piglets. Although the exact mechanisms of pathogenicity that lead to ED-PWD remain to be elucidated, E. coli-borne Shiga-like toxin and adhesion-mediating virulence factors such as F18 adhesin or F4 fimbriae are believed to play a central role in ED-PWD. In light of these observations we investigated whether another E. coli adhesin, the plasmid-encoded AIDA (adhesin involved in diffuse adherence) might also be present in ED-PWD-causing E. coli isolates. For rapid screening for the AIDA system in large numbers of isolates, a multiplex PCR method along with a duplex Western blot procedure was developed. When screening 104 strains obtained from pigs with or without ED-PWD, we observed a high prevalence of the AIDA operon in porcine E. coli isolates, with over 25% of all strains being AIDA positive, and we could demonstrate a significant association of the intact AIDA gene (orfB) with ED-PWD, while defects in orfB were associated with the absence of disease. Although our data hint toward a contribution of AIDA to ED-PWD, further studies will be necessary since the presence of the AIDA genes was also associated with the presence of the Shiga-like toxin and F18 adhesin genes, two reported virulence factors for ED-PWD.