In May 2012, a group of scientists and clinicians met in Athens (Greece) to consider the relevance of ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetic markers. During this meeting, we firstly reviewed recent epidemiological and clinical studies on ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, briefly analyzed the ageing theories and discussed successful and unsuccessful ageing also taking into account the evolutionary perspective. Secondly, we considered the three phenotypes based on the definition of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity and the associated biomarkers. Third, we discussed proposed treatments suitable to counteract or slow down ageing. Finally, this panel produced a consensus statement to highlight the importance of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, since this is a rapidly increasing phenotype worldwide. We acknowledge that not all experts in this field may completely agree with this statement.