Cardiovascular risk factors may act by modulating the composition and function of the adventitia. Here we examine how age affects perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and its paracrine activities during neointima formation. Aortic tissue and PVAT or primary aortic smooth muscle cells from male C57BL/6JRj mice aged 52 weeks (&ldquo / middle-aged&rdquo / ) were compared to tissue or cells from mice aged 16 weeks (&ldquo / adult&rdquo / ). Vascular injury was induced at the carotid artery using 10% ferric chloride. Carotid arteries from the middle-aged mice exhibited smooth muscle de-differentiation and elevated senescence marker expression, and vascular injury further aggravated media and adventitia thickening. Perivascular transplantation of PVAT had no effect on these parameters, but age-independently reduced neointima formation and lumen stenosis. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed a blunted increase in senescence-associated proinflammatory changes in perivascular tissue compared to visceral adipose tissue and higher expression of mediators attenuating neointima formation. Elevated levels of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) and lower expression of STAT1- or NF&kappa / B-regulated genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, and apoptosis/senescence were present in mouse PVAT, whereas PIAS1 was reduced in the PVAT of patients with atherosclerotic vessel disease. Our findings suggest that age affects adipose tissue and its paracrine vascular activities in a depot-specific manner. PIAS1 may mediate the age-independent vasculoprotective effects of perivascular fat.