BackgroundRespiratory infections are one of three leading causes of childhood mortality, and worldwide increase and recent plateau in childhood asthma has been reported. However, data on trends of respiratory diseases over long period of time is limited. This study aimed to determine the trends of respiratory disease outpatient visits (ROVs) and diagnoses (RODs) in one of the largest children’s teaching hospitals in China between 2009 and 2018.MethodsA retrospective study based on routine administrative data was designed and implemented according to the RECORD statement. Demographic details and diagnoses of the outpatients < 18 years visiting the respiratory department of the hospital were extracted from the Hospital Information System. Age- and gender-specific trends were illustrated by calculating average annual growth rate (AAGR) for ROVs and comparing change of proportion for different RODs over time.ResultsThere were 698,054 ROVs from 285,574 children (40.4% female). AAGR of ROVs was 15.2%. Children aged 4 to < 7 years had a faster increase than other age groups. Bronchitis (27.6%), pneumonia (18.5%), pneumonia affecting other systems (18.4%), asthma and status asthmaticus (10.7%), and vasomotor and allergic rhinitis (9.2%) accounted for 84.4% of all RODs. The proportion of bronchitis decreased across years, with the concomitant increasing trend in the proportion of pneumonia. Age-specific trend in diagnoses showed greater proportion of asthma in all visits for the children aged 7 to < 18 years than younger children. Gender-specific trend in diagnoses showed the proportion of asthma was greater for males but the AAGR was greater for females.ConclusionThe persistent upward trend in ROVs was observed among children at different ages and a gender difference was also seen. In contrast to what has been reported, burden of asthma and allergies diseases continues to increase locally.