Dynamin I (Dyn I) and Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) are essential for endocytosis-exocytosis processes, thus for neurotransmission. Despite their related function at presynaptic terminals, Dyn I and Syt I displayed opposite expression patterns during visual cortex maturation in the cat. Dyn I was more abundantly expressed in adults, while Syt I exhibited higher levels in kittens of postnatal day 30 (P30). In area 17 this developmental difference was most obvious in layers II/III. Layer VI displayed a strong hybridization signal for both molecules, independent of age. In addition, Syt I levels were higher in posterior compared to anterior area 17 in adult subjects. Moreover, in higher-order visual areas Syt I was unevenly distributed over the cortical layers, thereby setting clear areal boundaries in mature cortex. In contrast, Dyn I was rather homogeneously distributed over extrastriate areas at both ages. Both molecules thus demonstrated a widespread but different distribution and an opposite temporal expression pattern during visual system development. Notably, monocular deprivation during the critical period of ocular dominance plasticity significantly decreased Syt I expression levels in area 17 ipsilateral to the deprived eye, while no effect was observed on Dyn I expression. We therefore conclude that visual experience induces changes in Syt I expression that may reflect changes in constitutive exocytosis involved in postnatal structural refinements of the visual cortex. On the other hand, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Dyn I correlate with the establishment and maintenance of the mature neuronal structure rather than neurite remodeling.