Purpose Following the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, many reports have investigated the psychosocial effects of the lockdown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of the lockdown on the daily life habits of orthopaedic patients. Patients and Methods Around 30 days after the start of the Italian lockdown, from April 17th to the end of the containment measures on May 18th, the Sapienza University of Rome carried out a 19-item survey on the effects the lockdown caused in patients suffering from an orthopaedic pathology (with regard to changes in lifestyle, pain, treatment) by stratifying the sample by age, sex, profession, pain location, pathogenesis and prior surgeries. Results A total of 292 subjects with orthopaedic pathologies took part in the survey. Taking into consideration the totality of the sample, physical activity was significantly reduced (p <0.001). The increase of a sedentary lifestyle was statistically significant (p <0.001), as well as an increase in pain (p <0.001) and the need to adjust the pharmacological treatment (p <0.001). The increase in pain was particularly significant in the 50–70 age group, among workers, and in polyarthralgic patients. About 55.48% stated that the lockdown period worsened their underlying pathological condition and 53.77% expressed the need to undergo a new clinical evaluation at the end of the lockdown. Conclusion The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and resulting sudden changes in lifestyle led to a change in patient perception of orthopedic pathology including a worsening of musculoskeletal pain requiring an adjustment or change in pharmacological and physical therapy.