A case-control study of primary liver cancer (PLC) was conducted in 1989 at Fusui County, Guangxi Province. There were 99 PLC cases and 99 age-sex-residence matched controls. There were no difference of age, sex, race, cultural, level, marital status and annual income distribution (P > 0.05). The mean dietary AFB1 intakes of cases and controls were 117.72 + 105.68 mg/d, the mean outputs of AFM1 were 22.56 and 21.62 ng per morning urine respectively. The mean sera aflatoxin-albumin adducts in both groups were 24.96 and 18.72 pg per mg albumin respectively. These indicators were of no statistical significance. Conditional Logistic regression showed that HBV infection (OR = 5.33), drinking pond-ditch water (OR = 3.70), family history of PLC (OR = 2.88), and total alcohol intakes (OR = 1.002) were statistically significant as risk factors (P > 0.05) rather than aflatoxins. This may be due to the fact that the samples selected in hyperendemic area both took high quantities of aflatoxin.