At once it must be recognized that religious law by its very nature regulates and restricts the conduct of its adherents. One of the major foci of The Oxford Handbook of Judaism and Economics is therefore to describe the impact economic regulation in Jewish law has on the integration of Jews into the economic fabric of societies governed by different legal systems. Factors that impede integration, as well as those that facilitate it, are identified. More globally, a number of the papers in this volume discuss the positive contribution of Jewish business ethics to the morality of the marketplace, as well as Jewish legal perspectives on economic public policy. In the discipline of economics, advances in theory provide the grist for debate regarding the appropriate role for government. Accordingly, this volume presents papers dealing with economic theory in the Bible and Talmud, as well as comparative law studies that relate to economics. Also included are studies of the influence of religious economic law on the economic sphere of life in societies of the past. Finally, this work investigates how successfully Jews, as a people, have integrated into American economic life, and the related question of how economic forces have played a role in causing the American Jew to assimilate, shedding religious practice and commitment. Contributors to this volume - J. David Bleich is Herbert and Florence Tenzer Professor of Jewish Law and Ethics at the Cardozo Law School of Yeshiva University. Michael J. Broyde is professor of law at Emory University School of Law and the Academic Director of the Law and Religion Program at Emory University. Jeffrey L. Callen is the former Charles I Rosen Chair of Business Administration, the Hebrew University, a former Research Professor of Accounting, New York University, and currently the Joseph L. Rotman Chair of Accounting, University of Toronto. Barry R. Chiswick is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Program Director for Migration Studies, IZA - Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn, Germany. Carmel U. Chiswick is Professor Emerita in the Department of Economics at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Adam Chodorow teaches tax law at the Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State University, where he is also a faculty fellow of the Center for the Study of Law, Science and Technology. Yoel Domb, a graduate of Jerusalem College of Technology's Business School as well as an ordained rabbi of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate, has been teaching Jewish business ethics for the last ten years at the Jerusalem College of Technology, as well as researching the subject at the Jerusalem Center of Business Ethics (BEC) and Keter - The Center for Halacha and Economics. Yaakov Elman is Professor of Jewish Studies at Yeshiva University, where he teaches courses in Bible and Talmud. Daniel Z. Feldman received ordination (Yoreh Yoreh v'Yadin Yadin) from the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, an affiliate of Yeshiva University. Amal Jabareen received his Ph.D. from Bar-Ilan University. Amal Jabareen received his Ph.D. from Bar-Ilan University. He has been a full-time member of Ono Academic College Faculty of Law since 2004. Howard Jachter, Rabbinic Judge, Rabbinic Court of Elizabeth, New Jersey, is Professor of Bible and Jewish Law, Torah Academy of Bergen County, New Jersey. Eliakim Katz is currently professor and former chair of the economics department at Northern Illinois University. Yehuda L. Klein is an associate professor of Economics at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York and the Executive Officer of the Doctoral Program in Earth and Environmental Sciences at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Ephraim Kleiman is Don Patinkin Emeritus Professor of Economics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Ron S. Kleinman, a senior lecturer at the Ono Academic College Faculty of Law in Israel, where he teaches Jewish Law and Torts, also teaches in the law faculty of Bar-Ilan University, Israel. Aaron Levine, editor of this volume, is the Samson and Halina Bitensky Professor of Economics at Yeshiva University. His books include Free Enterprise and Jewish Law (1980); Economics and Jewish Law (1987); Economic Public Policy and Jewish Law (1993); Case Studies in Jewishewish Business Ethics (2000), and Moral Issues of the Marketplace in Jewish Law (2005). Yehoshua Liebermann is a graduate of Kol-Tora Rabbinical College in Jerusalem and holds a Ph.D. degree from the University of Chicago in Business Administration. Roger Lister is currently Professor of Accounting and Finance at the University of Salford. Asher Meir is a Senior Lecturer at the Jerusalem College of Technology, and is in charge of the Jewish ethics curriculum in the MBA program at the School. Leon M. Metzger, Associate Editor of Judaism and Economics, is an adjunct professor and lecturer at Columbia, New York, and Yale Universities, where he teaches alternative investment management courses. Moses L. Pava is Professor of Accounting and Alvin Einbender Professor of Business Ethics at the Sy Syms School of Business of Yeshiva University, where he has taught for the past 20 years. Jonas Prager is an associate professor of economics in the department of economics, faculty of arts and sciences, New York University, New York City. Larry Rabinovich is a partner at the law firm of Schindel, Farman, Lipsius, Gardner & Rabinovich of New York City, and serves as Treasurer of the Jewish Law Association. Dani Rapp is Associate Dean of Undergraduate Jewish Studies and Assistant Professor of Talmud at Yeshiva University. Edward Reichman is Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Associate Professor of Philosophy and History of Medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, where he teaches clinical medicine and Jewish medical ethics. Yosef Rivlin is Professor of Talmud at Bar-Ilan University. Professor Rivlin has published widely in the areas of Jewish family law; Cairo Geniza legal documents; wills and inheritance; and bills and contracts in Jewish law. Jacob Rosenberg, former Chair of the Department of Economics at Bar Ilan University and the Rector of the College of Management in Israel, received his D.Sc. in Economics from the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. Fred Rosner, MD, FACP, is director of the Department of Medicine of the Queens Hospital Center in Jamaica, New York, where he serves as professor of medicine. Daniel Schiffman is a lecturer in the Department of Economics and Business Administration at Ariel University Center. Lawrence H. Schiffman is Chairman of New York University's Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies and serves as Ethel and Irvin A. Edelman Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies. Keith Sharfman is Professor of Law at Marquette University Law School and Visiting Professor of Law at St. John's University School of Law. Michael Szenberg is Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University, Co-editor-in-Chief of the economics series of handbooks by Oxford University Press, and Editor-in-Chief of The American Economist. Meir Tamari, a former Chief Economist in the Office of the Governor of the Bank of Israel and currently an international consultant, has published extensively in the areas of corporate finance, small firms, risk evaluation, and entrepreneurship. P.V. Viswanath, Professor of Finance at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University in New York, received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. Ronald Warburg received rabbinic ordination from the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (an affiliate of Yeshiva University) and earned his doctorate (SJD) at the Hebrew University Faculty of Law Jonathan Weiser (J.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2001; M.A., Education, American University, 1988) is a practicing attorney working in loan markets, high yield investment trading, and related areas. Avi Weiss is a faculty member and former chairman of the department of economics at Bar Ilan University, and the former chief economist and deputy general director of the Israel Antitrust Authority.