The genome of Drosophila melanogaster has been surveyed for chromosomal regions which exert a dosage effect on the activities of cAMP phosphodiesterase or cGMP phosphodiesterase. Two regions increase cAMP phosphodiesterase activity when present as duplications. A region of the X chromosome increases cAMP phosphodiesterase activity when duplicated and decreases that activity when deficient. This region has been delimited to chromomeres 3D3 and 3D4, with 3D4 being the most probable locus, and may contain a structural gene for cAMP phosphodiesterase. A region on the third chromosome, 90E–91B, increase cAMP phosphodiesterase activity when duplicated but has no affect on the activity when deficient. Two regions increase cGMP phosphodiesterase activity when present as duplications. A region of the X chromosome, 5D–9C, increases cGMP phosphodiesterase activity when duplicated, but smaller duplications covering this region fail to show such an increase, indicating that a single locus is not responsible for the increase observed for the larger duplication. A region of the third chromosome, 88C–91B, also increases cGMP phosphodiesterase activity when duplicated. Smaller duplications covering this region show smaller increases than that observed for the larger duplication, suggesting that at least three loci between 88C and 91B contribute to the observed increase by that region. Deficiencies covering region 88C–91B do not affect cGMP phosphodiesterase activity. No locus for a presumptive structural gene for cGMP phosphodiesterase has been found. Limitations of the use of segmental aneuploidy in locating structural genes for enzymes are discussed.