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Usefulness of a Combination of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, Galectin-3, and N-Terminal Probrain Natriuretic Peptide to Predict Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

The American Journal of Cardiology
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.10.012
  • Biology
  • Medicine


Patients with coronary artery disease may develop not only ischemic events but also heart failure and death due to previous myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to test the prognostic value of a panel of plasma biomarkers related to vascular (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and soluble tumor necrosis factor–like weak inducer of apoptosis) and myocardial damage (galectin-3, N-terminal fragment of brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], and neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin) in 706 patients with chronic coronary artery disease followed for 2.2 ± 0.99 years. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of acute ischemic events (ST elevation myocardial infarction, non–ST elevation acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or transient ischemic attack) and death or heart failure. The primary outcome was the combination of the secondary outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model was used for analysis. Fifty-three patients developed acute ischemic events. Increasing MCP-1 plasma levels (p = 0.002), age, and body mass index predicted this outcome independently. Thirty-three patients developed death and/or heart failure. Galectin-3 (p = 0.007), NT-proBNP plasma levels (p = 0.004), hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, and the use of nitrates and anticoagulants were associated with this outcome independently. The development of the primary outcome was predicted independently by MCP-1 (p <0.001), NT-proBNP (p = 0.005), and galectin-3 (p = 0.019); hypertension; atrial fibrillation; and treatment with nitrates. Every biomarker with a value above the median increased the risk of developing this outcome by 1.832 (95% confidence interval 1.356 to 2.474, p <0.001). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipid levels were not associated with any outcome. In conclusion, increasing MCP-1, galectin-3, and NT-proBNP plasma levels are associated with a greater incidence of cardiovascular events.

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