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A Sensitive Denaturing Gradient-Gel Electrophoresis Assay Reveals a High Frequency of Heteroplasmy in Hypervariable Region 1 of the Human mtDNA Control Region

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  • Criminology


A population study of heteroplasmy in the hypervariable region 1 (HV1) portion of the human mtDNA control region was performed. Blood samples from 253 randomly chosen individuals were examined using a sensitive denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE) system. This method is capable of detecting heteroplasmic proportions as low as 1% and virtually all heteroplasmy where the minor component is ⩾5%. Heteroplasmy was observed in 35 individuals (13.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.6–18.0). Of these individuals, 33 were heteroplasmic at one nucleotide position, whereas 2 were heteroplasmic at two different positions (a condition known as “triplasmy”). Although heteroplasmy occurred at a total of 16 different positions throughout HV1, it was most frequently observed at positions 16093 (n=13) and 16129 (n=6). In addition, the majority of heteroplasmic variants occurred at low proportions and could not be detected by direct sequencing of PCR products. This study indicates that low-level heteroplasmy in HV1 is relatively common and that it occurs at a broad spectrum of sites. Our results corroborate those of other recent reports indicating that heteroplasmy in the control region is more common than was previously believed—a finding that is of potential importance to evolutionary studies and forensic applications that are based on mtDNA variation.

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