Abstract The subject of this work is the characterisation of the metric features of deciduous dentition in a Medieval population of central Poland with the use of the jackknife technique leave one out (LOO)—supporting multivariate methods, which are important for deriving discrimination equations that would result in sex determination of children's skeletal remains. The sex of the individuals was assessed through analysis of sex-specific DNA sequences (AMELY/AMELX, SRY and alpha satellite sequences). Discriminant analysis concerned only teeth of those individuals whose sex was confirmed by the primary structure of three DNA sequences. The deciduous tooth diameters of males were found to be significantly larger than those of females in four respects: MD diameter of the maxillary second molar, MD and BL diameters of the mandibular first molar and BL diameter of the mandibular second molar. A two-group discriminant analysis considered all those measurements as independent variables. A multiple regression procedure produced a linear equation predicting the sex of children's skeletons with a significant probability amounting to approximately 78%. The accuracy of the sex assessment of an individual, using dental measurements, was established at 69% in deciduous male and 88% in deciduous female teeth.