Open reading frame orf192, which is located immediately upstream of the aerobic repressor gene crtJ, was genetically and biochemically demonstrated to code for a second aerobic repressor (AerR) of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Promoter-mapping studies indicate that crtJ has its own promoter but that a significant proportion of crtJ expression is promoted by read-through transcription of orf192 (aerR) transcripts through crtJ. Disruption of aerR resulted in increased photopigment biosynthesis during aerobic growth to a level similar to that of disruption of crtJ. Like that reported for CrtJ, β-galactosidase assays of reporter gene expression indicated that disruption of aerR resulted in a two- to threefold increase in aerobic expression of the crtI and pucB operons. However, unlike CrtJ, AerR aerobically represses puf operon expression and does not aerobically repress bchC expression. Gel mobility shift analysis with purified AerR indicates that AerR does not bind to a bchC promoter probe but does bind to the crtI, puc, and puf promoter probes. These results indicate that AerR is a DNA-binding protein that targets genes partially overlapping a subset of genes that are also controlled by CrtJ. We also provide evidence for cooperative binding of AerR and CrtJ to the puc promoter region.