Purpose To investigate the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of dacryocystitis. Method Retrospective review of the 62 clinical and microbiologic records collected between 1980 and 1990. Results Aerobic or facultative bacteria were recovered in 32 cases (52%), anaerobic bacteria only in 20 cases (32%), mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in seven cases (11%), and fungi in three cases (5%). A total of 94 organisms (1.5 per specimen), which included 56 aerobic or facultative anaerobic organisms, 35 anaerobic organisms, and three fungi, were recovered. The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (15 isolates), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13 isolates), and Pseudomonas species (seven isolates). The most frequently recovered anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus species (13 isolates), Propionibacterium species (12 isolates), Prevotella species (four isolates), and Fusobacterium species (three isolates). The predominant fungus was Candida albicans (two isolates). Polymicrobial infection was present in 28 cases (45%). Conclusion These data highlight the potential importance of anaerobic bacteria in dacryocystitis.