Abstract The binding of endogenous manganese (Mn) to proteins released from spinach grana-thylakoid membranes by 2% cholate detergent or by osmotic shock is investigated. A mixture of 15–20 proteins is released by cholate and has been separated by isoelectric focusing in a sucrose gradient or by chromatofocusing. Mn coelutes with several proteins, but is lost upon dialysis. A dramatic redistribution of this Mn occurs in proteins released by osmotic shock in the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic oxidants. Maintaining an oxidizing solution potential during extraction apparently precludes reduction of the higher oxidation states of Mn to the labile Mn(II) state by reducing agents released from the membranes during lysing. This allows proteins to be separated which bind non-labile Mn ions. Under these extraction conditions, a protein is isolated which has an apparent molecular weight ( M r) of 65 000 or 56 000 on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis depending on the sample buffer system used. The nondissociated protein occurs as a monomer of 58 kDa (90%) and an apparent dimer of 112 kDa (10%) by gel filtration. This protein binds little Mn if extracted by cholate and separated by isoelectric focusing. However, extraction by osmotic shock in the presence of oxidants and separation by chromatofocusing results in the retention of 1.9 ± 0.3 Mn ions per monomer. This protein is identical to that reported by Spector and Winget (Spector, M., and Winget, G.D. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 957–959). Contrary to their result, this protein does not reconstitute O 2 evolution when added to depleted membranes. Rabbit antibody to this purified protein inhibits O 2 evolution by 20% when incubated with intact grana-thylakoid membranes or 10–20% with partially inverted, French-pressed thylakoids. This inhibition is completely removed by 10 −3 M NH 3Cl as an uncoupler of photophosphorylation. These results support a role in Phosphorylation and a location on the outer surface of the thylakoids. This antibody also selectively binds purified coupling factor, CF 1, the multisubunit phosphorylation enzyme which is located on the outer thylakoid surface and which is known to bind two Mn ions tightly (Hochman, Y. and Carmeli, C. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 6293–6297). Thus the β-subunit of CF 1, which has a molecular weight of 56 kDa, can be identified as the locus of Mn binding in CF 1 and as the Mn protein isolated by Spector and Winget. This protein plays no role on O 2 evolution.