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Selective Hydrogenation of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones using Novel Manganese Oxide and Platinum Supported on Manganese Oxide Octahedral Molecular Sieves as Catalysts

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Keywords
  • <P>The Selective Hydrogenation Of
  • -Unsaturated Aldehydes And Ketones Has Been Studied Using Ketoisophorone And Cinnamaldehyde As Model
  • For The First Time
  • Oms-2 Has Been Shown To Be An Efficient And Selective Hydrogenation Catalyst
  • High Selectivities For Either The Cc Or Co Double Bond At Approximate To 100% Conversion Were Achiev
  • Density Functional Theory (Dft) Calculations Showed That The Dissociation Of H2 On Oms-2 Was Water A
  • The Theoretically Calculated Activation Barrier Was In Good Agreement With The Experimentally Determ
  • Indicating That H2 Dissociation On Oms-2 Is Likely To Be The Rate-Determining Step
  • A Significant Increase In The Rate Of Reaction Was Observed In The Presence Of Pt As A Result Of The
  • The Relative Adsorption Strengths Of Ketoisophorone And Cinnamaldehyde On The Oms-2 Support Compared
  • </P>
Disciplines
  • Biology

Abstract

Chapter 2 Androgen Action During Prostate Carcinogenesis Diping Wang and Donald J. Tindall Abstract Androgens are critical for normal prostate development and function, as well as prostate cancer initiation and progression. Androgens function mainly by regulating target gene expression through the androgen receptor (AR). Many studies have shown that androgen-AR signaling exerts actions on key events during prostate carcinogenesis. In this review, androgen action in distinct aspects of prostate carcinogenesis, including (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell apoptosis, and (iii) prostate cancer metastasis will be discussed. Key words: Androgen receptor, prostate cancer, androgen metabolism, androgen signaling, castration-resistant prostate cancer. 1. Androgen Signaling Androgens are the male sex hormones, which control the differ- entiation and maturation of male reproductive organs, including the prostate gland. Testosterone is the principal androgen in cir- culation and is synthesized by Leydig cells in the testes, under the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is further regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Adrenal glands also synthesize a small amount of androgens, such as dehy- droepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (4-dione) (1). Testosterone enters prostate cells by passive diffusion, where it is converted enzymatically by 5-α reductases to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (2). Binding of androgens to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-modulated transcrip- tion factor, induces a conformational change in the AR, causing release of heat shock proteins and translocation of the AR to the F. Saatcioglu (ed.), Androgen Action, Methods in Molecular Biology 776, DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 25 26 Wang and Tindall nucleus, where it transcriptionally regulates the expression of tar- get genes (3). In addition to the classic genomic effects of sex steroids, accu- mulating

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