Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether gene LIG4 genetic polymorphism affects the risk of cervical carcinoma. We studied 500 cervical carcinoma patients and 800 normal women as controls. Demographic and epidemiologic risk factors were recorded. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (LIG4 Ile658Val) were genotyped. Compared to LIG4 Ile658Ile (AA) genotype, LIG4 Ile658Val (AG) did not increase or decrease the risk of cervical carcinoma or cervical squamous cell carcinoma [ORs and 95% CIs being 1.07 (0.70–1.63) and 1.01 (0.65–1.55)], while no homozygous LIG4 Val658Val (GG) was found in the cervical carcinoma group. Analyzing the risk of variant LIG4 Ile658Val genotypes for cervical carcinoma of different histologic types or HPV infection status, we found striking similarities between the squamous cell carcinoma group and the HPV-positive group and the overall carcinoma. In conclusion, in the Chinese population, LIG4 Ile658Val has only a slight impact on the risk of developing cervical carcinoma.