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Adverse effects of gluten ingestion and advantages of gluten withdrawal in nonceliac autoimmune disease.

Authors
  • Lerner, Aaron1, 2
  • Shoenfeld, Yehuda3
  • Matthias, Torsten2
  • 1 B. Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. , (Israel)
  • 2 AESKU.KIPP Institute, Wendelsheim, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 3 Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center-Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel, and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. , (Israel)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nutrition Reviews
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2017
Volume
75
Issue
12
Pages
1046–1058
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nux054
PMID: 29202198
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

In light of the coincident surge in overall gluten intake and the incidence of autoimmune diseases, the possible biological adverse effects of gluten were explored. PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases were screened for reports published between 1964 and 2016 regarding the adverse effects of gluten as well as the effects of a gluten-free diet on autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies describing gluten intake in animal models or cell lines and gluten-free diets in human autoimmune diseases were reviewed. Multiple detrimental aspects of gluten affect human health, including gluten-dependent digestive and extradigestive manifestations mediated by potentially immunological or toxic reactions that induce gastrointestinal inadequacy. Gluten affects the microbiome and increases intestinal permeability. It boosts oxidative stress and affects epigenetic behavior. It is also immunogenic, cytotoxic, and proinflammatory. Gluten intake increases apoptosis and decreases cell viability and differentiation. In certain nonceliac autoimmune diseases, gluten-free diets may help curtail the adverse effects of gluten. Additional in vivo studies are needed to unravel the puzzle of gluten effects in humans and to explore the potential beneficial effects of gluten-free diets in autoimmune diseases. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: [email protected]

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