Mate choice in most organisms is not random, but determined by a suite of interacting traits and environmental factors. While the selective pressures underlying differences in mate choice between species, populations, individuals and even within individuals has been gaining interest, there still remains unexplained variation in mate preferences especially in non-model systems. Despite being of social, environmental and economic importance there is comparatively little known about how salmonids and other tetraploids make mate choice decisions in the wild and the resultant reproductive success (i.e. the number of offspring which survive to sexual maturity). Resolving questions related to salmonid mate choice is of particular importance given that humans have been supplementing salmon populations through aquaculture for decades. Despite these efforts, hatchery produced fish have lower reproductive success relative to their wild counterparts and salmon populations are declining. Most studies on mate choice and reproductive success in salmonids focus on body size and major histocompatibility complex based choice. However, mate choice can also be affected by other factors including other genetic factors, predation risk and social environment. Here, we (a) synthesize what is presently known about mate choice and reproductive success in salmonids, (b) identify gaps in knowledge and areas where there is a lack of consensus in results, and (c) suggest interdisciplinary ways of advancing our understanding of mate choice in salmonids and other polyploids.