Proteomics and metabolomics are two emerging fields that hold promise to shine light on the molecular mechanisms causing neurodegenerative diseases. Research in this area may reveal and quantify specific metabolites and proteins that can be targeted by therapeutic interventions intended at halting or reversing the neurodegenerative process. This review aims at providing a general overview on the current status of proteomic and metabolomic profiling in neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on the most common neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We discuss the relevance of state-of-the-art metabolomics and proteomics approaches and their potential for biomarker discovery. We critically review advancements made so far, highlighting how metabolomics and proteomics may have a significant impact in future therapeutic and biomarker development. Finally, we further outline technologies used so far as well as challenges and limitations, placing the current information in a future-facing context.