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Advances in Precision Health and Emerging Diagnostics for Women

Authors
  • Fitzpatrick, Megan B.1
  • Thakor, Avnesh S.
  • 1 Stanford Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Pathology, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Clinical Medicine
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Sep 23, 2019
Volume
8
Issue
10
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/jcm8101525
PMID: 31547515
PMCID: PMC6832724
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

During the Dutch winter famine of 1944–1945, an interesting observation was made about the offspring born during this time—They had an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases. Subsequent research has confirmed this finding as well as noting that health outcomes for many diseases are different, and often worse, for women. These findings, combined with the lack of enrollment of women in clinical trials and/or analysis of sex-specific differences are important factors which need to be addressed. In fact, Women’s health research and sex differences have historically been overlooked or lumped together and assumed equivalent to those of men. Hence, a focus on women’s health and disease prevention is critical to improve the lives of women in the 21st Century. In this review, we point out the critical differences biologically and socially that present both challenges and opportunities for development of novel platforms for precision health. The technologic and scientific advances specific to women’s precision health have the potential to improve the health and wellbeing for all females across the world.

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