Microclimates at the land-air interface affect the physiological functioning of organisms which, in turn, influences the structure, composition, and functioning of ecosystems. We review how remote sensing technologies that deliver detailed data about the structure and thermal composition of environments are improving the assessment of microclimate over space and time. Mapping landscape-level heterogeneity of microclimate advances our ability to study how organisms respond to climate variation, which has important implications for understanding climate-change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems. Interpolating in situ microclimate measurements and downscaling macroclimate provides an organism-centered perspective for studying climate-species interactions and species distribution dynamics. We envisage that mapping of microclimate will soon become commonplace, enabling more reliable predictions of species and ecosystem responses to global change.