Recent progress in plastic surgery has been rapid and many new techniques have been developed. Reconstructive procedures have been advanced by a better understanding of the anatomy of the blood supply to skin and muscle, with the subsequent development of the use of axial flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and neurosensory flaps. Burn treatment has advanced greatly, making it possible to successfully treat larger and more complicated burns. The development of microsurgery has made possible free-flap transfer and replantation of amputated parts. Advances in surgical procedures on the hands include a realization that primary repair of lacerated tendons and nerves will give good results. Replacement joints have been developed that can be used in hands for joints destroyed by arthritis or trauma. Craniofacial surgery is a new field of endeavor in plastic surgery, involving new techniques that can be used to treat exophthalmos of Graves' disease and the facial deformities resulting from gigantism and acromegaly. Head and neck procedures have advanced, with the emphasis on immediate reconstruction using new flaps. Techniques for treating cleft lip and palate have been refined. Encouraging results have been reported in the treatment of nevus flammeus with argon lasers. In aesthetic surgical procedures, the aim is for safety and consistent long-lasting results. Improved understanding of the physiology and treatment of radionecrosis has evolved.