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Advances in the Evolution and Ecology of 13- and 17-Year Periodical Cicadas

Authors
  • Simon, Chris
  • Cooley, John R.
  • Karban, Richard
  • Sota, Teiji
Type
Published Article
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
Jan 07, 2022
Volume
67
Pages
457–482
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ento-072121-061108
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Apart from model organisms, 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada) are among the most studied insects in evolution and ecology. They are attractive subjects because they predictably emerge in large numbers; have a complex biogeography shaped by both spatial and temporal isolation; and include three largely sympatric, parallel species groups that are, in a sense, evolutionary replicates. Magicicada are also relatively easy to capture and manipulate, and their spectacular, synchronized mass emergences facilitate outreach and citizen science opportunities. Since the last major review, studies of Magicicada have revealed insights into reproductive character displacement and the nature of species boundaries, provided additional examples of allochronic speciation, found evidence for repeated and parallel (but noncontemporaneous) evolution of 13- and 17-year life cycles, quantified the amount and direction of gene flow through time, revealed phylogeographic patterning resulting from paleoclimate change, examined the timing of juvenile development, and created hypotheses for the evolution of life-cycle control and the future effects of climate changeon Magicicada life cycles. New ecological studies have supported and questioned the role of prime numbers in Magicicada ecology and evolution, found bidirectional shifts in population size over generations, quantified the contribution of Magicicada to nutrient flow in forest ecosystems, and examined behavioral and biochemical interactions between Magicicada and their fungal parasites and bacterial endosymbionts.

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