Coronaviruses pose a serious threat to public health. Tremendous efforts are dedicated to advance reliable and effective detection of coronaviruses. Currently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis mainly relies on the detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genetic materials by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. However, simpler and more rapid and reliable alternatives are needed to meet high demand during the pandemic. Biosensor-based diagnosis approaches become alternatives for selectively and rapidly detecting virus particles because of their biorecognition elements consisting of biomaterials that are specific to virus biomarkers. Here, we summarize biorecognition materials, including antibodies and antibody-like molecules, that are designed to recognize SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers and the advances of recently developed biosensors for COVID-19 diagnosis. The design of biorecognition materials or layers is crucial to maximize biosensing performances, such as high selectivity and sensitivity of virus detection. Additionally, the recent representative achievements in developing bioelectronics for sensing coronavirus are included. This review includes scholarly articles, mainly published in 2020 and early 2021. In addition to capturing the fast development in the fields of applied materials and biodiagnosis, the outlook of this rapidly evolving technology is summarized. Early diagnosis of COVID-19 could help prevent the spread of this contagious disease and provide significant information to medical teams to treat patients.