The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has been concerned with the production of vaccines and drugs against leishmaniasis for a number of years. Weapons against the responsible parasite are slowly being improved. Recent reports from vaccine trials in Ecuador, Iran, and India have yielded encouraging results. In Ecuador, more than 70% of vaccinated children in one study were protected from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The vaccine provided was given in 2 doses and consisted of whole killed Leishmania. In Iran, TDR supported the trial of a single dose vaccine in an area endemic for anthroponotic CL and with relatively low incidence, and another trial in an area endemic for zoonotic CL. The vaccines were comprised of whole killed L. major promastigotes together with BCG as adjuvant. 2 trials of vaccines given in single doses were supported by TDR. In a study in Bihar, India, aminosidine therapy yielded a 30-34% greater cure rate than did the standard regimen of pentostam. Aminosidine also had a low incidence of adverse reactions and was well tolerated.