Aiming to set out the occurrence of the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in the neonatal period, and according to recent descriptions in literature, we prospectively analyzed 5 cases. The criterion adopted to characterize ARDS was the expanded definition of the syndrome suggested by Murray & Matthay, (10), conjointly with non-invasive cardiac monitoring, to exclude pulmonary edema resulting from myocardial dysfunction. For each case, evolution was briefly described, as well as the predisposing conditions associated to the clinical score punctuation for diagnosis, stressing the importance of adequate identification and fastest possible management of such source of systemic effects. Upon admission at the intensive care unit (Ped. ICU), the five cases were either related to sepsis or to the syndrome of multiple organ failure, or to both. Both syndromes were essentially triggered by severe anoxia neonatorum, respiratory distress of the newborn and/or previous hospitalization with hypoxemia and use of a higher inspired fraction of oxygen. The primary causes of death were related to uncontrolled infection or shock, and not directly related to pulmonary failure.