Fertilization in the implantation of mahogany african commercial forests can promote higher initial plant growth and ensure rapid establishment of the stand. However, there are recent commercial plantations with the species and little research on fertilization under field conditions were carried out in Brazil. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of the application of phosphorus and potassium on growth, concentration of macronutrients in the leaves, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration and efficiency of water use in Khaya senegalensis plants in implantation phase. For this, two experiments were conducted in the field on red yellow ultisol, one of phosphorus installed in january 2014 and one of potassium in march 2014, both conducted for 24 months. Phosphorus experiment were applied 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in planting and potassium experiment were applied, 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 K2O in three stages, planting, three and six months of age. The seedlings were planted at a spacing of 3 x 2 m and the experimental design was randomized blocks, with five repetitions in the phosphorous experiment and four replications in potassium experiment. Avaliations were made of height and stem diameter of the plants at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the phosphorous experiment planting and at 12, 18 and 24 months after planting potassium experiment. At 12 months, it was determined the concentration of nutrients in the leaves and gas exchange of plants in both experiments. Phosphate fertilization promoted greater growth of the plants in the period of one to two years of age, promoting a linear increase in height and diameter at breast height with the increase of phosphorus doses to the maximum dose of 120 kg ha-1 P2O5. Khaya senegalensis was undemanding in potassium fertilization in the initial phase of growth.