Mineral processing effluents generated in hydrometallurgical industrial operations are sulfate based; hence it is of interest to investigate the effect sulfate matrix solution ("sulfate media") has on arsenate adsorption onto ferrihydrite. In this work, in particular, the influence of media (SO4(2-) vs NO3-), added gypsum, and pH alteration on the adsorption of arsenate onto ferrihydrite has been studied. The ferrihydrite precipitated from sulfate solution incorporated a significant amount of sulfate ions and showed a much higher adsorption capacityfor arsenate compared to nitrateferrihydrite at pH 3-8 and initial Fe/As molar ratios of 2, 4, and 8. Adsorption of arsenate onto sulfate-ferrihydrite involved ligand exchange with SO4(2-) ions that were found to be more easily exchangeable with increasing pH. Added gypsum to the adsorption system significantly enhanced the uptake of arsenate by ferrihydrite at pH 8. Equilibration treatment at acidic pH and addition of gypsum markedly improved the stability of adsorbed arsenate on ferrihydrite when pH was elevated. Comparison of arsenate adsorption onto ferrihydrite to coprecipitation of arsenate with iron(III) showed the latter process to lead to higher arsenic removal.