Esophageal cancer with high incidence and mortality rates plays a major clinical and social role. Adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy and combined chemoradiation are used for esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy. Outcomes of these approaches are analyzed in the literature. Three randomized clinical trials and three retrospective series were reviewed; they provided a representative pattern of available data. From their analysis some critical aspects emerged in relation to the statistical design of the few, now available randomized clinical trials. The number of patients enrolled is too low to verify minimal improvements in outcomes. Therefore, to-date there is not definite evidence in the literature supporting the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer.