Oral appliances (OAs) are frequently used in orthodontics and for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Because OAs can be inserted and removed by patients themselves, the patient's cooperation is a major component of effective treatment. In this review, we provide an overview of factors studied in the past that affect adherence to OA use in orthodontics and dental sleep medicine. We also describe future directions in adherence and the use of objective microsensor technology to measure adherence in these patients. Because removable oral appliances (OAs) can be inserted and removed by patients themselves, their cooperation and adherence to therapy are necessary to achieve success.1,2 Removable OAs, such as headgear, removable retainers and functional appliances, are used in orthodontics to correct malocclusions. In the field of sleep medicine, removable OAs are increasingly used as an option in the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).