Background Inadequate adherence to insulin is a major concern, necessitating the use of reliable and valid metrics for assessing adherence. Up to date, there are no Arabic validated tools assessing adherence to insulin therapy among children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic version of the four-item Morisky Green Levine Medication Adherence Scale (MGLS-4) as a self-reported measure of adherence to insulin among a cohort of Egyptian children with T1DM. Methods The MGLS-4 was translated using forward and backward translation. The Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess reliability. Criterion validity of the scale was tested by examining the correlation coefficients between the compliance score (level of adherence) and the HbA1c levels. Results A total of 400 patients completed the Arabic version of MGLS-4. 26.25% of the studied cohort was found to be non-adherent to insulin therapy; non-adherent patients were significantly older (P=0.001). Decreased maternal education level, decreased frequency of blood glucose monitoring and prolonged disease duration best predicted the occurrence of non-adherence among the studied cohort. The internal consistency of the current version showed good reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.857). The adherence score and adherence level showed very strong correlation with HbA1c level (rho = 0.830, P < 0.001 and rho = 0.808, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion The Arabic version of MGLS-4 showed good reliability and validity as a self-administered tool for assessing adherence to insulin in pediatric patients with T1DM.