Since HIV infection has become a chronic disease, antiretroviral therapy is now used on a long-term basis. Response to treatment is conditioned by numerous inter-dependent factors, including non-compliance, which can result in failure of the therapeutic regimen. Although compliance is crucial for long-term efficacy of the treatment, it is a dynamic factor, and therefore difficult to evaluate. This literature review proposes a multidisciplinary approach to treatment adherence during HIV infection, and deals with the following questions: how should adherence and non-adherence be defined? How are they correlated to the treatment response? How is adherence measured in trials and cohorts, as well as in clinical practice? By what factors is it influenced? What tools can be implemented to improve adherence? The interaction between adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy requires communication between clinicians, healthcare providers, patients, virologists, pharmacologists, and the companies responsible for developing drugs. The pharmaceutical industry must sustain its efforts to ensure a balance between demands for efficacy and adherence when developing new drugs. And the methods implemented by numerous healthcare teams plead in favour of a dynamic approach to adherence, with the active participation of all.