Cytostatic anticancer drugs are known as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic risk factors for health care workers occupationally exposed. It has been demonstrated that the administration of interleukin-15 in rat models of colon carcinoma protects against chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicities. We found that occupational exposure to chemotherapeutic antiblastic agents in vivo modified circulating levels of interleukin-15 in 17 health care workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs in relation to their jobs and in as many healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. Health care workers displayed significantly higher circulating interleukin-15 levels compared to their age-matched controls. If this increase representing an anticancer response remains to be established, these findings strengthen the idea of a therapeutic use of interleukin-15 in the field of cancer.