Gene targeting using short interfering RNA (siRNA) has become a common strategy to explore gene function because of its prominent efficacy and specificity. The human transmembrane 4 superfamily member 4 (TM4SF4) was originally identified in intestine and liver as a cell proliferation-related gene. Recently, it showed an increased expression in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. In this study, we developed an adenoviral vector harboring an effective siRNA targeting TM4SF4 (AdSiTM4SF4) and identified its function in suppression of tumor cell growth. It was confirmed that TM4SF4 was overexpressed in HCC tissues compared with its paired non-tumor tissues by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Remarkably, it was more abundant on the cell surface of HCC cells. The signals of ectopically expressed TM4SF4 in four cell lines dramatically localized in the plasma membrane, slightly in the cytoplasm, and absent in the nucleus, demonstrating that TM4SF4 is a membrane protein. Targeting TM4SF4 by AdSiTM4SF4 successfully exerted a gene knockdown effect. The QGY-7701 and SMMC-7721 HCC cells infected with AdSiTM4SF4 displayed remarkably attenuated growth potential. Moreover, intratumoral injection of AdSiTM4SF4 significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model using SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells. Our results indicated that targeting TM4SF4 might be a promising modality for inhibition of HCC.