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Addition of overland runoff and flow routing methods to SWMM—model application to Hyderabad, India

  • Swathi, V.1
  • Raju, K. Srinivasa1
  • Varma, Murari R. R.1
  • 1 Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, 500078, India , Hyderabad (India)
Published Article
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Publication Date
Sep 15, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-020-08490-0
Springer Nature


Hydrological models apply different methods to estimate runoff and route flows. Suitability of these methods is not unique, but varies with catchment conditions. This study aims to find the suitable overland runoff and flow routing methods for a catchment in Hyderabad, India, using customised Storm Water Management Model (SWMM-C). Currently, SWMM adapts only non-linear reservoir (NLR) method to estimate overland runoff. Linear reservoir (LR) and kinematic wave overland flow (KWO) have been incorporated as additional overland runoff methods. For flow routing, SWMM currently has kinematic wave (KW) and dynamic wave (DW) methods. Muskingum, Muskingum Cunge (MC) and lag methods have been included as additional methods in this customised version. SWMM-C was calibrated with four event rainfalls and tested with six event rainfalls using all possible combinations of overland runoff and flow routing methods. Efficiency of SWMM-C in simulating runoff was evaluated using performance indices. Results showed that for low magnitude event rainfalls, NLR, LR and KWO simulated runoff with a maximum deviation of 50%, 60% and 40% from observed runoff, respectively. In high magnitude event rainfalls, NLR, LR and KWO simulated runoff with maximum deviations of 20%, 40% and 20%, respectively, from the observed runoff. It was inferred from model outputs that NLR method could simulate runoff reasonably well for rainfalls that have duration greater than the time of concentration of catchment. LR method could simulate peak runoff better. KWO method was found to be suitable for chosen catchment for all rainfall durations. Flow routing methods KW, DW and MC are found to have minor influences on the runoff.

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