Abstract A substance has been obtained from the blood of spontaneously hypertensive rats which produces a hypertensive elevation of the blood pressure in normotensive rats. The substance is dialyzable and is associated with the erythrocyte membrane. It appears to be relatively long-lived in its effect on arterial pressure. The erythrocyte fractions that exhibit pressor activity also stimulate the in vitro uptake of calcium by aortas obtained from normotensive animals. This suggests that the hypertensive factor or related substances may influence the calcium metabolism of vascular tissue.