We compared four doses of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) with three doses of fluconazole in temporarily neutropenic mice in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis due to four different isolates of Candida tropicalis. The mice were infected with a 90% lethal dose of four strains of C. tropicalis for which the fluconazole MICs ranged from 1 to >125 mg/liter 3 days after receiving 200 mg of cyclophosphamide/kg of body weight. Treatment was started 18 h after infection and lasted for 7 days. ABLC (1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered once a day intravenously, fluconazole was administered by oral gavage once daily (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) or twice daily (125 mg/kg). MICs determined in five different ways with 24- and 48-h endpoints were also compared. The overall survival rates were controls, 14%; fluconazole, 64%; and ABLC, 82%. Treatment with ABLC at 2 to 10 mg/kg increased survival compared to controls (P = <0.0001) and was also superior to fluconazole at 25 and 50 mg/kg (P = 0.006). In the fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis model (MIC, 128 μg/ml), ABLC at 2 to 10 mg/kg was superior to fluconazole at 250 mg/kg and ABLC at 10 mg/kg was superior to all fluconazole doses (P = <0.05). Fluconazole at 250 mg/kg daily was superior to both 25 and 50 mg/kg at reducing mortality with most isolates. ABLC was superior to fluconazole (P = <0.01), and fluconazole at 250 mg/kg was superior to fluconazole at both 25 and 50 mg/kg (P = 0.02) in all models at reducing C. tropicalis counts in the kidneys. Neither drug consistently sterilized the brain or kidneys. A 48-h endpoint reading with the NCCLS susceptibility testing microtiter variation overestimates resistance to fluconazole. ABLC is an effective treatment for fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis at all doses tested.