Complications in urinary tract nervous routes due to herpes viruses as VZV and HSV-2 are well known. Acute urinary retention and chronic neuropathic pain are not rare when sacral dermatomes are involved by these viruses. However, an analogous condition has not yet been clearly ascribed to HSV-1 infection. We present a 32-year-old immunocompetent patient with fever, lumbar pain and acute urinary retention who had never had herpetic clinical manifestations. Urodynamic studies diagnosed a neurologic bladder with an absent filling sensation. Cystoscopic assessment revealed the presence of reddened and isolated small mucosal areas in the bladder walls. The search for herpes viruses in plasma and CSF by PCR assay were positive for HSV-1. After treatment with antiviral therapy the disease resolved. Intermittent catheterization was necessary and voiding dysfunction resolved after three weeks by its appearance. Neurological damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and/or PNS due to HSV-1 seems to be the most likely reason. The course of disease was benign and self-remitting.