Low tidal volume is the only strategy that has consistently improved outcome in ARDS. A tidal volume of ≤ 6 mL/kg predicted body weight should be used. Ventilator induced lung injury may result in systemic effects with multi-system organ failure, and all efforts should be made to minimize this. Positive end-expiratory pressure should be used to judiciously maintain lung recruitment. There is insufficient evidence to routinely use high frequency ventilation, prone positioning, or inhaled nitric oxide. Calfactant therapy is promising and may be considered in children with direct lung injury and ARDS. Current literature does not support routine use of corticosteroids for non-resolving ARDS.