Although the concept of vulnerable plaque has become common, it is still impossible to predict effectively the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is regarded as vulnerable from pathological studies and various diagnostic tools have tried to detect TCFA clinically but failed to predict ACS. Because there are so many silent plaque ruptures detected, it is supposed that many vulnerable plaques might have ruptured but not caused ACS. Some factor(s) other than the rupture of vulnerable plaque is required for the onset of ACS. "Vulnerable blood" may be one of them. The thrombogenic potential of blood (ie, vulnerable blood) may play an important and determinant role in the onset of ACS, the process of which will be discussed from the angioscopic point of view.