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Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome in Heart Failure: from Dogmas to Advances

Authors
  • Tang, W. H. Wilson1
  • Kiang, Alan1
  • 1 Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk J3-4, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA , Cleveland (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current Cardiology Reports
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Sep 10, 2020
Volume
22
Issue
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11886-020-01384-0
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Purpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize our current understanding and management strategies of acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).Recent FindingsThe definition of acute CRS remains debated, in part due to the lack of reliable insights into salt and water handling of the kidneys beyond impairment in glomerular filtration. Protocolized use of loop diuretics to ensure adequate delivery to their target of action, as well as segmental tubular blockade with adjunctive use of thiazide diuretics, acetazolamide, amiloride, or sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, may result in more effective natriuresis in patients with acute CRS who exhibit diuretic resistance. Other strategies, such as modulating renal sodium avidity with the use of hypertonic saline, reduction of intra-abdominal pressure, or device-based salt and volume removal, are promising and warrant further investigation.SummaryAcute CRS remains a significant contributor of morbidity and mortality for the acute heart failure population. New strategies have challenged current dogmas in our understanding of its pathophysiology, which may lead to potential new treatment approaches.

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