Acupuncture is a therapy effective in treating postoperative ileus (POI); its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in inflammation and injury to the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), both of which are considered to be contributors to POI. C-kit, encoding KIT, a specific marker of ICCs, is predicted to be targeted by miR-19a, an inflammation-related miRNA. Therefore, we investigated a possible link between inflammation, miR-19a, and ICCs in POI, as well as the mechanism by which these factors are affected by acupuncture. The effects of acupuncture on POI were assessed in patients after colorectal resection and in colocolic anastomosis mice. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that KIT[Formula: see text]/ano1[Formula: see text] ICCs dramatically decreased around the colonic incision in mice, which was negatively correlated with the pronounced increase in macrophage. However, this decrease was not due to apoptosis. IL-6R was expressed in ICCs, and IL-6 level was significantly increased, as measured by ELISA, in accompaniment with high miR-19a expression. The increase in IL-6 and miR-19a levels was negatively correlated with the decrease in KIT[Formula: see text]/ano1[Formula: see text] ICCs. A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-19a directly targeted C-kit, indicating that miR-19a caused ICC damage. Interestingly, acupuncture inhibited macrophage activation, IL-6 release, and miR-19a upregulation, while promoting KIT and ano1 restoration in ICCs. High serum miR-19a level in patients after colorectal resection was also reduced by acupuncture. Conclusively, the IL-6 released by macrophages during gastrointestinal surgery upregulated miR-19a, which downregulated KIT in ICCs and finally resulted in POI. Acupuncture can interfere with the "IL-6-miR-19a-KIT" axis, suggesting that it may be a therapeutic mechanism that works against POI.