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Active sites in working bifunctional GaH-TON aromatization catalysts: kinetic evaluation.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B
1520-5207
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Volume
110
Issue
37
Pages
18473–18480
Identifiers
PMID: 16970474
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The conversion of light alkanes to high value aromatics proceeds with a high selectivity over bifunctional, gallium (Ga) containing zeolite catalysts. It is generally agreed that Ga sites are involved in dehydrogenation reaction steps and that the zeolite acid sites catalyze cracking, oligomerization, and cyclization reactions. However, understanding of the precise roles of the acid and Ga sites in the reaction mechanisms is significantly hampered since the number of these sites in working catalysts is not known. This paper describes a kinetic approach to evaluation of the acid and Ga active sites in working Ga containing TON zeolite catalysts that relies on the analysis of the rates of formation of the primary products of a n-butane aromatization reaction. Our results show that the rate of ethane formation at low n-butane conversions can be used as a quantitative estimate of acidity in working bifunctional zeolite catalysts and demonstrate, for the first time, a significant decrease in the number of Brønsted acid sites in the Ga containing catalysts under reaction conditions: around 47 and 79% for the catalysts with Ga loading of 1.5 and 2.5 wt %, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in acidity is associated with the formation of catalytically active Ga(+) ions and obtain estimates for the number and steady-state turnover activity of the acid and Ga active sites in n-butane transformation. We anticipate that our work will facilitate understanding of the precise roles of the acid and Ga sites in the mechanisms of alkane aromatization and, as a far-reaching implication, will prompt wider use of detailed kinetic studies for the evaluation of active sites in working catalysts.

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