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Active-site-mediated elimination of hydrogen fluoride from a fluorinated substrate analogue by isopenicillin N synthase

Authors
  • Annaleise R. Grummitt
  • Peter J. Rutledge
  • Ian J. Clifton
  • Jack E. Baldwin
Publisher
Portland Press Ltd.
Publication Date
Aug 24, 2004
Source
PMC
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Biology
License
Unknown

Abstract

Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) is a non-haem iron oxidase that catalyses the formation of bicyclic isopenicillin N from δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). In this study we report a novel activity for the iron of the IPNS active site, which behaves as a Lewis acid to catalyse the elimination of HF from the fluorinated substrate analogue, δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-β-fluorovaline (ACβFV). X-Ray crystallographic studies of IPNS crystals grown anaerobically with ACβFV reveal that the valinyl β-fluorine is missing from the active site region, and suggest the presence of the unsaturated tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-isodehydrovaline in place of substrate ACβFV. 19F NMR studies confirm the release of fluoride from ACβFV in the presence of the active IPNS enzyme. These results suggest a new mode of reactivity for the IPNS iron centre, a mechanism of action that has not previously been reported for any of the iron oxidase enzymes.

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