The antigen receptors expressed by follicular lymphomas represent tumor-specific antigens ("idiotypes"). In murine models, vaccination with tumor-derived idiotype in a variety of formulations can induce protective lymphoma-specific immunity. Phase II clinical trials in follicular lymphoma have also demonstrated idiotype-specific immune responses. Clinical data from these trials indicate sustained progression-free survival, disappearance of minimal residual disease, and even frank lymphoma regression in some cases. Phase III trials to prove the beneficial effects of active immunotherapy are currently being conducted. Additional research efforts focus on the most efficacious vaccination route and on the development of convenient methods to manufacture individual idiotype vaccines.