Since obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) management with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) is likely to be life-long, potential changes in mandibular movements during therapy should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to use a method that has already been shown to be reliable in order to determine whether the range of antero-posterior mandibular excursion, the procedure upon which MAD titration is based, varies between baseline (T0) and at least 1 year of treatment (T1). The distance between maximal voluntary protrusion and maximal voluntary retrusion determined using the millimetric scale of the George Gauge was retrospectively collected from the medical records of 59 OSA patients treated with the MAD and compared between T0 and T1. A regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of treatment time, MAD therapeutic advancement and the patient's initial characteristics in excursion range variation. A statistically significant increase of 0.80 ± 1.52 mm (mean ± standard deviation, p < 0.001) was found for antero-posterior mandibular excursion. The longer the treatment time (p = 0.044) and the smaller the patient's mandibular excursion at T0 (p = 0.002), the greater the increase was. These findings could be explained by a muscle-tendon unit adaptation to the forward mandibular repositioning induced by the MAD. During MAD therapy, patients can develop a wider range of antero-posterior mandibular excursion, especially those with a smaller initial excursion capacity.