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Activation of tumor-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes by major histocompatibility complex class II tumor cell vaccines: a novel cell-based immunotherapy.

Authors
  • Dissanayake, Samudra K
  • Thompson, James A
  • Bosch, Jacobus J
  • Clements, Virginia K
  • Chen, Peter W
  • Ksander, Bruce R
  • Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cancer research
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2004
Volume
64
Issue
5
Pages
1867–1874
Identifiers
PMID: 14996751
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Mouse tumor cells transfected with syngeneic MHC class II and costimulatory molecule genes are therapeutic vaccines in mice, provided they do not coexpress the class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). We demonstrated previously that the vaccine cells present tumor peptides via the endogenous antigen presentation pathway to activate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Because of their efficacy in mice, we are translating this vaccine strategy for clinical use. To obtain MHC class II(+)CD80(+)Ii(-) human tumor cells, we developed retroviruses encoding HLA-DR and CD80. The HLA-DR virus encodes the DRalpha and DRbeta0101 chains using an internal ribosomal entry site to coordinate expression. SUM159PT mammary carcinoma and Mel 202 ocular melanoma cells transduced with the retroviruses DRB1/CD80 express high levels of DRB0101 and CD80 on the cell surface in the absence of Ii. Irradiated SUM159PT/DR1/CD80 vaccines stimulate proliferation of non-HLA-DRB0101 peripheral blood mononuclear cells and present an exogenous DR1-restricted tetanus toxoid (TT) peptide, indicating that the transduced DRB0101 is functional. SUM159PT/DR1/CD80 vaccines were further transduced with a retrovirus encoding the TT fragment C gene, as a model tumor antigen. These cells stimulate IFN-gamma release from TT-primed human DRB0101 peripheral blood mononuclear cells, demonstrating their ability to present "endogenous" tumor antigen. Depletion and antibody blocking experiments confirm that MHC class II-restricted, endogenously synthesized epitopes are presented to CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, the MHC class II vaccines are efficient antigen-presenting cells that activate tumor-specific MHC class II-restricted, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and they are a novel and potential immunotherapeutic for metastatic cancers.

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