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Activation of terminal components of complement in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and other demyelinating neuropathies.

Authors
  • Koski, C L
  • Sanders, M E
  • Swoveland, P T
  • Lawley, T J
  • Shin, M L
  • Frank, M M
  • Joiner, K A
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of clinical investigation
Publication Date
Nov 01, 1987
Volume
80
Issue
5
Pages
1492–1497
Identifiers
PMID: 3680509
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

In the present study, the role of antiperipheral nerve myelin antibody (anti-PNM Ab) in demyelination by generating the terminal attack complex (C5b-9) of complement was explored in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and other demyelinating neuropathies. The presence in serum of SC5b-9, an inactive C5b-9 containing S protein, was assessed quantitatively by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using an antibody (Ab) to neoantigens expressed on C9 when complexed with C5b-8 or after tubular polymerization. SC5b-9 was detected in all 19 GBS, four patients with paraprotein-associated neuropathy and five of six patients with chronic recurrent polyneuritis. No SC5b-9 was detected in 10 normal controls. Kinetic studies from six GBS patients showed the highest values of SC5b-9 on the 3rd to 5th d of admission; in contrast, the anti-PNM Ab were highest on the day of admission. Anti-PNM Ab fell rapidly to very low levels by the 15th to 20th d. SC5b-9 declined with similar kinetics to undetectable levels by the 30th d. Levels of Ab and SC5b-9 did not quantitatively correlate with soluble immune complexes in these patients' serum. Membrane-bound C5b-9 was also detected by immunohistochemistry in the peripheral nerves from a GBS patient. These results, which show a relationship between levels of complement-fixing anti-PNM Ab and the tissue-damaging C5b-9 complex, suggest that peripheral nerve myelin may serve as the target for Ab-mediated complement attack.

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