The effect of Leishmania tropica major excreted factor (EF) on human immune and normal mononuclear peripheral blood cells has been studied. The response of lymphocytes to stimulation either specifically with leishmanial antigens or non-specifically with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in the presence of EF was tested by the uptake of 3 [H]thymidine. The results showed that EF inhibits the response of cells from immune donors to leishmanial antigens and from normal donors to PHA or PPD. Adherent and non-adherent cells were separated and the effect of EF on both populations was analysed. The results showed that EF inhibited blast transformation if both EF and antigen were presented to each of the separate populations. The inhibition of the adherent cells (mainly monocytes) was more marked than the inhibition of the non-adherent population (mainly lymphocytes).